grdmath - Reverse Polish Notation calculator for grd files
grdmath [ -Ixinc[m|c][/yinc[m|c]] -Rwest/east/south/north -V] operand [
operand ] OPERATOR [ operand ] OPERATOR ... = outgrdfile
grdmath will perform operations like add, subtract, multiply, and
divide on one or more grd files or constants using Reverse Polish
Notation (RPN) syntax (e.g., Hewlett-Packard calculator-style).
Arbitrarily complicated expressions may therefore be evaluated; the
final result is written to an output grd file. When two grd files are
on the stack, each element in file A is modified by the corresponding
element in file B. However, some operators only require one operand
(see below). If no grdfiles are used in the expression then options
-R, -I must be set (and optionally -F).
If operand can be opened as a file it will be read as a grd file.
If not a file, it is interpreted as a numerical constant or a
special symbol (see below).
outgrdfile is a 2-D grd file that will hold the final result.
Choose among the following operators:
Operator n_args Returns
ABS 1 abs (A).
ACOS 1 acos (A).
ACOSH 1 acosh (A).
ADD(+) 2 A + B.
AND 2 NaN if A and B == NaN, B if A == NaN, else A.
ASIN 1 asin (A).
ASINH 1 asinh (A).
ATAN 1 atan (A).
ATAN2 2 atan2 (A, B).
ATANH 1 atanh (A).
BEI 1 bei (A).
BER 1 ber (A).
CDIST 2 Cartesian distance between grid nodes and
CEIL 1 ceil (A) (smallest integer >= A).
COS 1 cos (A) (A in radians).
COSD 1 cos (A) (A in degrees).
COSH 1 cosh (A).
CURV 1 Curvature of A (Laplacian).
D2DX2 1 d^2(A)/dx^2 2nd derivative.
D2DY2 1 d^2(A)/dy^2 2nd derivative.
D2R 1 Converts Degrees to Radians.
DDX 1 d(A)/dx 1st derivative.
DDY 1 d(A)/dy 1st derivative.
DIV(/) 2 A / B.
DUP 1 Places duplicate of A on the stack.
ERF 1 Error function of A.
ERFC 1 Complimentory Error function of A.
EXCH 2 Exchanges A and B on the stack.
EXP 1 exp (A).
FLOOR 1 floor (A) (greatest integer <= A).
FMOD 2 A % B (remainder).
GDIST 2 Great distance (in degrees) between grid
nodes and stack lon,lat.
HYPOT 2 hypot (A, B).
I0 1 Modified Bessel function of A (1st kind, order 0).
I1 1 Modified Bessel function of A (1st kind, order 1).
IN 2 Modified Bessel function of A (1st kind, order B).
INV 1 1 / A.
J0 1 Bessel function of A (1st kind, order 0).
J1 1 Bessel function of A (1st kind, order 1).
JN 2 Bessel function of A (1st kind, order B).
K0 1 Modified Kelvin function of A (2nd kind, order 0).
K1 1 Modified Bessel function of A (2nd kind, order 1).
KN 2 Modified Bessel function of A (2nd kind, order B).
KEI 1 kei (A).
KER 1 ker (A).
LOG 1 log (A) (natural log).
LOG10 1 log10 (A).
LOG1P 1 log (1+A) (accurate for small A).
MAX 2 Maximum of A and B.
MEAN 1 Mean value of A.
MED 1 Median value of A.
MIN 2 Minimum of A and B.
MUL(x) 2 A * B.
NEG 1 -A.
OR 2 NaN if A or B == NaN, else A.
PLM 3 Associated Legendre polynomial P(-1<A<+1) degree B
POP 1 Delete top element from the stack.
POW(^) 2 A ^ B.
R2 2 R2 = A^2 + B^2.
R2D 1 Convert Radians to Degrees.
RINT 1 rint (A) (nearest integer).
SIGN 1 sign (+1 or -1) of A.
SIN 1 sin (A) (A in radians).
SIND 1 sin (A) (A in degrees).
SINH 1 sinh (A).
SQRT 1 sqrt (A).
STD 1 Standard deviation of A.
STEPX 1 Heaviside step function in x: H(x-A).
STEPY 1 Heaviside step function in y: H(y-A).
SUB(-) 2 A - B.
TAN 1 tan (A) (A in radians).
TAND 1 tan (A) (A in degrees).
TANH 1 tanh (A).
Y0 1 Bessel function of A (2nd kind, order 0).
Y1 1 Bessel function of A (2nd kind, order 1).
YLM 2 Re and Im normalized surface harmonics (degree A,
YN 2 Bessel function of A (2nd kind, order B).
The following symbols have special meaning:
X Grid with x-coordinates
Y Grid with y-coordinates
-I x_inc [and optionally y_inc] is the grid spacing. Append m to
indicate minutes or c to indicate seconds.
-R west, east, south, and north specify the Region of interest. To
specify boundaries in degrees and minutes [and seconds], use the
dd:mm[:ss] format. Append r if lower left and upper right map
coordinates are given instead of wesn.
-F Select pixel registration. [Default is grid registration].
-V Selects verbose mode, which will send progress reports to stderr
[Default runs "silently"].
The operator GDIST calculates spherical distances bewteen the (lon,
lat) point on the stack and all node positions in the grid. The grid
domain and the (lon, lat) point are expected to be in degrees. The
operator YLM calculates the fully normalized spherical harmonics for
degree L and order M for all positions in the grid, which is assumed
to be in degrees. YLM returns two grids, the Real (cosine) and
Imaginary (sine) component of the complex spherical harmonic. Use the
POP operator (and EXCH) to get rid of one of them. The operator PLM
calculates the associated Legendre polynomial of degree L and order M,
and its argument is the cosine of the colatitude which must satisfy -1
<= x <= +1. Unlike YLM, PLM is not normalized.
All the derivatives are based on central finite differences, with
natural boundary conditions.
To take log10 of the average of 2 files, use
grdmath file1.grd file2.grd ADD 0.5 MUL LOG10 = file3.grd
Given the file ages.grd, which holds seafloor ages in m.y., use the
relation depth(in m) = 2500 + 350 * sqrt (age) to estimate normal
grdmath ages.grd SQRT 350 MUL 2500 ADD = depths.grd
To find the angle a (in degrees) of the largest principal stress from
the stress tensor given by the three files s_xx.grd s_yy.grd, and
s_xy.grd from the relation tan (2*a) = 2 * s_xy / (s_xx - s_yy), try
grdmath 2 s_xy.grd MUL s_xx.grd s_yy.grd SUB DIV ATAN2 2 DIV =
To calculate the fully normalized spherical harmonic of degree 8 and
order 4 on a 1 by 1 degree world map, using the real amplitude 0.4 and
the imaginary amplitude 1.1, try
grdmath -R0/360/-90/90 -I1 8 4 YML 1.1 MUL EXCH 0.4 MUL ADD =
Files that has the same name as some operators, e.g., ADD, SIGN, =,
etc. cannot be read and must not be present in the current directory.
Piping of files are not allowed. The stack limit is hard-wired to 50.
Bessel and error functions may not be available on all systems. The
Kelvin-Bessel functions (bei, ber, kei, ker) are based on the
polynomial approximations by Abramowitz and Stegun for r <= 8. All
functions expecting a positive radius (e.g., log, kei, etc.) are
passed the absolute value of their argument.
Abramowitz, M., and I. A. Stegun, 1964, Handbook of Mathematical
Functions, Applied Mathematics Series, vol. 55, Dover, New York.
Press, W. H., S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery,
1992, Numerical Recipes, 2nd edition, Cambridge Univ., New York.
gmt, gmtmath, grd2xyz, grdedit, grdinfo, xyz2grd
Man(1) output converted with